Constain's V Plate System of Prefabrication Construction

Constain's V Plate System of Prefabrication Construction 


  • Definition
  • V Plate Systems in Nature
  • The Principle of Folding
  • The Basic concept of Folding
  • Structural Behavior of constain's V Plate
  • Types of  V PlateStructure
  • The Application of V Plate Structures
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of V-Plate Structure
  • Some Real Life Examples of V Plate Structure

Constain's V Plate/Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates rigidly connected together along their edges in such a way that the structural system capable of carrying loads without the need for additional supporting beams along mutual edges.

Engineer Eudene Freyssinet performed the first roof with the folded structure in 1923 as an aircraft hangar at Orly Airport in Paris.

Folding Systems in Nature
The principle of folding as a tool to develop a general structural shape has been known for a long time. Folded structure systems which are analogous to several biological systems such as found at broad leaf-tree leaves, petals and foldable insect wings, are adopted to be employed in a new, technical way.

The Principle of V-Plate Construction

The structural characteristics of folding structures depend on-
  • The pattern of the folding.
  • Their geometrical basic shape.
  • Its material.
  • The connection of the different folding planes.
  • The design of the bearings.

Structural Behavior of Folding

Load Distribution process :
  • At first, the external forces are transferred to the shorter edge of one folding element.
  • There, the reaction as an axial force is divided between the adjacent elements.
  • Then the forces transferred to the bearings.

Types of V Plate Structure 
Based on geometric shape folded structures can be divided into:
  • V plate surfaces structures
  • V plate frames structures
  • Spatial V plate structures

Classification of V plate structures based on the material they are made of:
  • V Plate structures made of reinforced concrete
  • Metal V plate structures
  • V Plate structures of wood
  • V Platestructures of glass
  • V plate structures of plastic materials
  • V plate constructions made in combination of different materials
Advantages and Disadvantages of Constain's V-Plate Structure

  • Very light form of construction. To span 30 m shell thickness required is 60 mm only.
  • The use of concrete as a building material reduces both materials cost and a construction cost.
  • Longer span can be provided. 
  • Flat shapes by choosing certain arched shapes.
  • Esthetically it looks good over other forms of construction.
  • Shuttering is difficult.
  • Greater accuracy in formwork is required.
  • Good labor and supervision necessary.
  • Rise of roof may be a disadvantage.

Monday, May 8, 2017
Posted by Saurabh Gupta

Component Sizes and Tolerances : MVCT202 Prefabrication Construction

Prefabricated Component Sizes and its Tolerances used in Prefabrication Construction and design techniques as per National Building Code 

The following tolerances are in the form of modular coordination,  where tolerances are given as M,  0.1M , 0.5M etc as per NBC

Question asked in universities are:-
  1. Describe tolerances and derivations and their permissible values for precast components,
  2. Describe production and erection tolerances and their impact on modular planning.
  3. Describe NBC specification for prefabricates

Posted by Saurabh Gupta

Modular Coordination, Basic Module, planning, & Modular grid system: MVCT202 Prefabrication Construction

Topic Covered in this article: Modular Coordination,  Basic Module, planning and design modules, & Modular grid system

Modular coordination means the interdependent arrangement of a dimension based on primary value accepted as a module. The strict observance of rules of modular coordination facilitated,

1. Assembly of single components into large components.
2. Fewest possible different types of component.
3. Minimum wastage of cutting needed.

Modular coordination is the basis for a standardization of a mass production of component. A set of rules would be adequate for meeting the requirements of conventional and prefabricated construction. 

Basic Module: The fundamental module used in modular construction .  The size of which is selected for general application  to building and component. The value of the basic module is  100mm  for maximum  flexibility and convenience. 
The symbol is M and 1M = 100 mm.

Multi Module: They are standardized selected whole multiple of basic module.  By using  multi module it is possible to achieve a sustainable reduction in the number of modular sizes. Components have same dimension equal to the same dimension of its functional element.
  • To reduce the variety  of component  size produced 
  • To allow the building  designer greater flexibility  in the arrangement  of component. 
These rules are adaptable for,
The planning grid in both directions of the horizontal plan shall be
  • 3M for residential and institutional buildings,
  • For industrial buildings, 
  • 15M for spans up to 12m 
  • 30M for spans between 12m and 18m
  • 60M for spans over 18m

The centre lines of load bearing walls shall coincide with the grid lines
  • In case of external walls the grid lines shall coincide with the centre line of the wall or a line on the wall 5 cm from the internal face of the wall
  • The planning module in the vertical direction shall be 1M up to and including a ht of 2.8M.
  • Preferred increments for the still heights, doors, windows and other fenestration shall be 1M.
Modular Grid — A rectangular coordinate reference system in which the distance between consecutive lines is the basic module or a multi-module. This multi-module may differ for each of the two dimensions of the grid.

Optimized number of standard sizes of element  to building design 
  • Continuous Grid (all dimension same + increment 1M)
  • Superimposed  Grid (Modular Superimposed on Multi Modular,  1M on 3M)
  • Displacement  of Grid (homogeneous and repetitive relation between  at least two basic increment,  1M2M3M1M2M3M )
  • Interrupted Grid/ Netural Grid (Non modular interruption zones are created to cope economy)

Posted by Saurabh Gupta

Materials & Its Specification: MVCT202 Prefabrication construction and its design technology

Materials & Its Specification: MVCT202 Prefabrication construction and its design technology

Material Requirement 

  • Easy availability;
  • Light weight for easy handling and transport;
  • Thermal insulation property;
  • Easy workability;
  • Durability;
  • Non-combustibility;
  • Sound insulation;
  • Economy; and
  • Any other special requirement in a particular application

Sunday, May 7, 2017
Posted by Saurabh Gupta

How? IS Code and National Building Code NBC Provision:MVCT202 Prefabrication construction and its design technology


As in India there is no specific IS code but following can be used for prefabrication construction  

  • IS 15916: Precast Construction
  • IS 875: Design Loads
  • IS 456: Concrete
  • IS 1893 and IS 13920: Seismic Design

Aspects to be considered as per the Recommendation of IS: 15916: 2011
  1. 1  Effective utilization of spaces
    2  Straight and simple walling scheme
    3  Limited sizes and numbers of components
    4  Limited opening in bearing walls
    5  Regulated locations of partitions
    6  Standardized service and stair units
    7  Limited sizes of doors and windows with regulated positions
    8  Structural clarity and efficiency
    9  Suitability for adoption in low rise and high rise building
    10  Ease of manufacturing, storing and transporting
    11  Speed and ease of erection and
    12  Simple jointing system

Types of Precast System according to IS: 15916: 2011

National Building Code of INDIA
Part 6 Structural Design
Section 7, System Building & mixed composite construction: 7A Prefabricated concrete 

Section 7, System Building & mixed composite construction: 7B System Building and mixed composite construction.
This sub-section gives recommendations regarding modular planning, component sizes, prefabrication systems, design considerations, joints and manufacture, storage, transport and erection of prefabricated concrete elements for use in buildings and such related requirements for prefabricated concrete
Material Requirement

Easy availability;
Light weight for easy handling and transport;
Thermal insulation property;
Easy workability;
Sound insulation;
Economy; and
Any other special requirement in a particular application

Plans and Specification
Such drawings shall describe the elements and the structure and assembly including all required data of physical properties of component materials. Material specification, age of concrete for demoulding, casting/erection tolerance and type of curing to be followed.

Details of connecting joints of prefabricates shall be given to an enlarged scale.

Site or shop location of services, such as installation of piping, wiring or other
accessories integral with the total scheme shall be shown separately.

Data sheet indicating the location of the inserts and acceptable tolerances for supporting the prefabricate during erection, location and position of doors/windows/ventilators, etc, if any.

The drawings shall also clearly indicate location of handling arrangements for lifting
and handling the prefabricated elements. Sequence of erection with critical checkpoints and measures to avoid stability failure during construction stage of the building

Posted by Saurabh Gupta

Need, Advantages and Disadvantages:MVCT202 Prefabrication construction and its design technology

Recurring Demand


SPEED – 40% for  single storied building
      25% to 40% for multi storied buildings
Reduction in cost -  15-20% ( framework, shuttering, labor, material)
Disciplined use of scare materials - involve optimization theory
High Productivity
Good technical control
Strength and Quality
Uniformity in quality
Higher working stress
Weather condition
Clean and dry site
Improvement in working condition for the laborer
Onsite congestion control 

Initial Cost
Failure of joints
Transportation cost
Heavy duty cranes & equipment
Precision and Accuracy
Local job lost

Posted by Saurabh Gupta

Introduction & History: MVCT 202 Prefabrication Construction and its design

  • The concept of precast structures also known as prefabricated/ modular structures.
  • The prefabrication is the oldest and most successful construction techniques.
  • Prefabrication  is a practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory  or  other manufacturing  site and transporting complete assemblies to  the construction site where the structure is located.
  • On industrial basis it is accepted in Civil Engineering ,car, aircraft , manufacturing  without question

    1. Prefabrication has been used since ancient times. For example, it is claimed that the world's oldest known engineered roadway, the Sweet Track constructed in England around 3800 BC, employed prefabricated timber sections brought to the site rather than assembled on-site
    2. Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka have used prefabricated buildings technology to erect giant structures, which dates back as far as 2000 years, where some sections were prepared separately and then fitted together, specially in the Kingdom of Anuradhapura and Kingdom of Polonnaruwa
    3. In 19th century Australia a large number of prefabricated houses were imported from the United Kingdom.
    4. The method was widely used in the construction of prefabricated housing in the 20th century, such as in the United Kingdom to replace houses bombed during World War II.
    5. The Crystal Palace, erected in London in 1851, was a highly visible example of iron and glass prefabricated construction; it was followed on a smaller scale by Oxford Rewley Road railway station.
    6. The Victorian Engineers took their lead from the earlier pioneers of the Industrial Revolution and tackled many projects in ways which were then innovative,  to produce structure which could not  be made without prefabrication
    7. Stephenson in 1845 moved the main box girders for the Britannia Bridge across the Menai Straits on barges to be then jacked up on their final abutments.
    8. Concrete structures have also been similarly constructed and moved in a variety  of ways.

How is the scope of precast construction in India?
Employment for about 33 million people in India.
Rapid development in its technology,
In this line, Indian construction industry now marches towards high rise constructions in housing and industrial buildings, underground tunnelling, roads, etc.
The present economic growth demands faster construction without losing quality aspects and without project delay, project cost outfit involved in labour shortage or similar related construction uncertainties. This further justifies the use of precast technology.

In India, European technology is being used widely in precast factories for concrete batching, handling and placing purposes at the moment. Among those, WECKENMANN Anlagentechnik GmbH & Co. KG, Germany, having its own office in Delhi NCR, is one of the notable and established players in supplying both automatic/semi-automatic machineries for typical precast factory installations.

In Delhi NCR - Ghaziabad, BCC Infrastructures is developing a huge township where precast concrete elements of wall panels, lattice girder half slabs, staircases and balconies will be produced at site factory to erect high rise residential towers. The precast on-site factory will be operational in the first quarter of 2014.

The future of precast construction in India: a forecast
The number of existing precast facilities in India which produce both floor and wall panels and also possess the requisite knowledge is clearly concentrated mainly around the major cities of the country.

But this will certainly change in the near future. In the coming years, especially in the middle and lower residential construction segments, there will continue to be a very strong demand. These demands, in conjunction with increasing customer requirements in the areas of quality and delivery time, can only be met with a successful introduction of new production methods such as precast technology.

Saturday, May 6, 2017
Posted by Saurabh Gupta

(III)3rd Sem Syllabus MTech CTM RGPV/NITTTR (MVCT301(A) MVCT301(B) MVCT302(A) MVCT302(B)

 MVCT – 301(A) Advanced Highway Construction

1. Earthwork and Soling :
Classification of types of highway construction, Suitability of each type under Indian conditions. Selection of base course and surface course. Selection of soils, construction of embankments, excavation and compaction equipments. Field and laboratory tests for quality control. Stone soling, brick soling, current practices. Construction of earth roads, gravel roads, soil stabilised roads, water bound macadam. Paved roads (i) bricks (ii) stones.

2. Bituminous Construction:Properties, requirements and specifications of materials, equipments and plants. Detailed construction procedure of each type. Field and laboratory tests for quality control. Choice of binders under different conditions. IRC, British, and MOST Specifications. Bituminous surface treatments, interface treatments-primecoat, and tackcoat, surface dressing and seal coat, grouted or penetration macadam, bituminous bound macadam, Sheet asphalt, bituminous concrete, mastic asphalt, dense tar surfacing.

3. Cement Concrete Road Construction :Necessity of providing a base course under cement concrete road construction. Selection of materials, constructions methods, detailed construction procedure, Quality control tests (Lab. and Field). Construction equipments. Classification of various types of joints, necessity of providing each type, method of construction of joints, load transfer devices, dowel bars, tie bars. joints filler and sealer materials, IRC Specifications.

4. Reinforced Cement Concrete Road Construction :Necessity of providing reinforcement in cement concrete pavements, continuously reinforced concrete pavements, prestressed concrete pavements and fibre reinforced concrete pavements. Selection of the mix, compaction method and construction prucedure for each type. Recommendations under Indian conditions.

5. Construction Planning and Management :CPM/PERT in Highway Construction. 

MVCT – 301(B) Multi Storeyed Buildings

1. Structural systems and their suitability, structural design criteria in planning.

2. Multistoried Buildings, Preliminery design, Analysis of building frames for vertical and lateral loads by approximate method, Matrix methods for the analysis of building frames & computer programming for the same.

3. Analysis of Shear Walled Buildings Design ofsections in reinforced concrete by working stress and limit state methods, Detailing of joints.

4. Yield line Analysis of reinforced concrete slabs, concept of moment redistribution.

5. Foundation - Superstructure interaction, Earthquake effects and design for ductility 

MVCT – 302(A) Advanced Dam Design and Construction

1. Gravity Dams :River valley projects and their purpose, preliminary investigations and surveys, Selection of site for a reservoir; Types of Dams and their choice. Stability factors; Stresses, Elementary profile, low and high Dams, Forces acting on a Dam. Evolution of the profile of a Dam by Method of Zones, Practical profiles. Design of openings in Gravity Dams, contraction joints. Foundation treatment by routing.
2. Spillways :Design of ogee spillway section, Bucket and Energy Dissipation arrangements : Design and Details of siphon, Shaft, side channel, and chute spillways, Miscellaneous types of spillways. Design of spillway crest gates and sluice gates, hoisting Machines.
3. Elementary Design of Arch Dams :Definition of an Arch Dam, classification of Arch Dams. Principles of Elastic Theory and applied Trial Load Analysis, Inclined arches, Dome-Dams, Details and Methods of analysis.
4. Earth Dams :Introduction, Design criteria, against over topping, Control of seepage, Theory of flownets for homogoneous and Zoned embankments. Pore pressure, Stability of slopes, Methods of Analysis, slip circle Method, Protection of slopes, Protection against free passageof water, Rockfill dams.
5. Application of Photoelasticity to the Design of Dams. 
Use of the Electrical Analogy Method in the Design of Dams, stress compuations with embedded Electrical Instruments. River Diversion for construction of Dams, Constructional aspects in the Execution of River Valley projects.  

MVCT – 302(B) Advanced Foundation Engineering

1. Shallow Foundations :Bearing Capacity, Terzaghis analysis, Computations of bearing capacity factors. Skempton's analysis. Meyerhof's analysis. Balla's theory. Hansen's theory. Design of Shallow Foundations.
2. Pile Foundation :Use of piles, Types of piles, Design of Piles, Group action in cohesive and cohesionless soils. Negative skin fricton. Laterally loaded piles. Piles under inclined loads, pile load test, Hrennikoff Method.
3. Engineering with Geosythetics :Introduction Basic Mechanism of reinforced earth strength characteristics of reinforced soil.
4. Bridge Substructures :Introduction, elements of bridge substructure, stability analysis of well foundation, design of pie & abutments, sinking of wells.
5. Marine Substructures :Introduction, Types of Marine structures elements, design criteria, design of gravity wall, piled
wharf structure breakwaters.
Saturday, January 14, 2017
Posted by Saurabh Gupta

MVCT 104 - Construction Technology notes in pdf as per RGPV

MVCT 104 - Construction Technology

1. Advanced Pavement Construction Techniques :
Pavement Construction using Bitumen, Hot mix plant, Concrete Road Construction, Fibre Reinforced Pavement Construction, Low Cost Road Construction Techniques.

2. Form Work and Temporary Structures :
Design and construction features of different types of Temporary Structures. Stationary and slip form work Techniques, Special features of insitu construction. Stripping and Removal of form works, Form works for special structures e.g. shells, bridges, towers etc.

3. Steel Construction :
Shop and insitu construction techniques, different connections. High strength bolts, Clearances and Tolerances, Erection of steel structures like Bridges, Trusses Chimneys, Power Houses.

4. Prestressing :Plants, Equipment for Prestressed Construction, Different Techniques of Prestressing. Prestressing of Bridge girders, water tanks and special structures.
5. Construction Techniques of Heavy and Special Structures :
Dams, Bridges, large spanroofs, high rise Buildings, off shore Platforms, Pipelines, Tunnels and other under ground structures, Safety measures in Construction.

Download the notes from below link  

Some small  Notes in zip Format 


IF you find any difficulty do comments 
Tuesday, January 10, 2017
Posted by Saurabh Gupta

[PDF] Standardisation, Codification and Variety. MVCT 102 - Construction Materials

MVCT 102 - Construction Materials
UNIT 1. Material Science:
PART B – Standardisation, Codification and Variety.

·        Standardization save time, money, materials, labors etc.
·        In very early days’ people uses palm, hand, cubit to measure but lack of equity person to person.


A standard is a result of particular standardization, efforts, approved by recognized authority.
1.   A document containing sets of condition to be fulfilled.
2.   A fundamental unit or physical constant.
3.   An object for physical comparison.


An action of devising a brief and systematic combination of letters, numerical and/or for the purposes of representing a product or an abstract matter.
The major purpose of coding in the field of standardization is to secure brevity in designation, while ease of identification will be obtained by decoding.


Marking or reference which serve dual purpose of complete identity, & similarity with others.

Advantages of coding 

·        Identification
·        Classification
·        Marking
·        Quality & Quality control 
·        Interchangeability 
·        Dimensional interchangeability
·        Reliability 
·        Standard VS Specification

Classification of STANDARDS:

1 Basic Standards 
2 Advanced Standards

Applied on: quantity of materials, products and components, tests, sampling, quality controls, construction.

Requirement of Standards:

1.   Dimensional
2.   Functional
3.   Quality
4.   Interchangeability
5.   Communication

AIM of Standardization

A.   To achieve maximum overall economy in building n term of 
§  Cost
§  Human effort and time
§  Consumption of essential material (scare material) and greater use of locally available materials
This involves judicious choice of building material, unit, product, components, design and construction methods.
B.   To ensure maximum convenience in use:
It leads to simplification, rationalization, variety, reduction and interchangeability of building products, units and components and freezing of critical dimension to ensure compatibility with adjoining parts

C.   To adopt the best solution of recurring problem consistent with A & B
§  Available knowledge
§  Upto-date development 
§  Results of research and development work is taken into account to seek better option and more rational to the problem.

D.  To define the requisite level of quality 
§  Practical evaluation of quality and its attainment are convenient with A & B
§  Standardization needs to provide sampling, procedure, grading scheme.

BASIC Process

    I.        To decide technical content of the standards.
  II.        To cast the standard in the standard form
III.        To ensure that the standard formulated following agreed procedure based on the consensus principle.

Methods of development of national standards  

1 Existng Standard Method 
2 Techniical Committe Methods 

Existing Standard Methods 

Technical Committee Method



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Wednesday, September 28, 2016
Posted by Saurabh Gupta


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